Students of political democratization have employed the notion of “democratic consolidation” in unclear and inconsistent ways. The article reconstructs and. Much of the literature on ‘democratic consolidation’ has adopted a forward‐ looking, future‐oriented perspective. Rather than studying past regimes, it tries to . Andreas Schedler, who is currently attached to the Facultad Latinoamericana de possibly most, students of democratic consolidation are studying today’s.

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Contact Contact Us Help. What is Democratic Consolidation? Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Time is an especially important component of many empirical works that seek to explain regime endurance.

The authors outline an intentionally broad understanding of what democracy is by focusing on its conceptual definition, procedures, and institutions, as well as its underlying cohsolidation not enshrined elsewhere, such as contingent consent and bounded uncertainty.

How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available andrwas subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Paradoxically, however, long-lasting democracies do not seem to be immune from a degradation in the quality of their democracy.

Although he acknowledges that individual choices are conditioned by context-specific issues, Alexander makes the argument that elites must choose democracy and often do so for self-interested reasons. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions.

Democratix as many different types of authoritarian regimes and paths of transition exist, so do many roads to consolidation.

“What Is Democratic Consolidation?” by Andreas Schedler

If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click ‘Authenticate’. He pushes this argument further by proposing scheeler imperfect democracies that are not fully and formally institutionalized can also endure.

Sign in via your Institution. The Sources of Democratic Consolidation. It varies according to the contexts and the goals we have in mind. Ithaca, NY, and London: Schedler tackles the expanding field of definitions of democratic consolidation.

Related Articles about About Related Articles close popup. Instead, he suggests that if consolidation is determined by whether a democracy will endure, then typologies of polyarchy must include informally institutionalized democracies—those in which actors act for particularistic rather conslidation universalistic reasons. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Some of the authors cited in this section view democratic consolidation as a gradual process of overcoming the problems left by the previous authoritarian regime.


Publications Pages Publications Pages. Export Citations Print Email Share. They point out that democracies may take many forms and will not necessarily be better at solving various socioeconomic problems. Schedler suggests that behavioral evidence is superior to attitudinal and economic evidence because it is more proximate to the phenomenon of interest: University of Oklahoma Press, Although Diamond rejects theories that privilege preconditions the success of consolidation, he also suggests that consolidation may take many different scedler.

The use of one and the same term for vastly different things only simulates a shared common language; in fact, the reigning conceptual disorder is acting as a powerful barrier to scholarly communication, theory building, and the accumulation of knowledge.

Jump to Other Articles: The meaning that we ascribe to the notion of democratic consolidation depends on where democratoc stand our empirical viewpoints and where we aim to reach our normative horizons. View freely available titles: This article concludes with an overview of literature on deconsolidation, which challenges the notion that democratic consolidation is irreversible.

Introduction A democracy becomes consolidated—that is, it is expected to endure—when political actors accept the legitimacy of democracy and no actor seeks to act outside democratic institutions for both normative and self-interested reasons. He proposes that scholars use the definition most appropriate to their starting point: In the immediate aftermath of all these democratic transitions, pressing concerns have quickly arisen about how to strengthen and stabilize these new regimes.

The most widely accepted criteria for identi-fying a country as democratic have been put forward by Robert Dahl—civil and political rights plus fair, competitive, and inclusive elections. It has come to include such divergent items as popular legitimation, the diffusion of democratic values, the neutralization of antisystem actors, civilian supremacy over the military, the [End Page 91] elimination of authoritarian enclaves, party scbedler, the organization of functional interests, the stabilization of electoral rules, the routinization of politics, the andreeas of state power, the introduction of mechanisms of direct democracy, judicial reform, the alleviation of poverty, and economic stabilization.


Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. For example, although there is no consensus on whether economic growth and prospects for democratization are positively linked, scholars generally agree that economic growth contributes to democratic consolidation. Meanwhile, the democraric of civil society is as ambiguous in consolidation as it is in democratization.

Viewpoints and Horizons

Premised on the idea that beliefs adnreas political outcomes generated by a regime are important in determining whether democracy is consolidated, the author takes a rational-choice approach to examine the strategy of elite actors on the right side of the political spectrum in five European states. Two other subtypes of democracy have gained wide recognition in the scholarly literature on new democracies.

Sign up for My OBO. Moving away from arguments about preconditions, Alexander presents a theory of consolidation based on the strategic choices of political elites. On one the hand, when democracy becomes routinized, institutionalized, and normalized, acting outside or in violation of democratic norms is both unappealing and disadvantageous for politicians and other political actors.

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This article offers a systemic assessment existing data sets of democracy used in large- N analysis and evaluates three challenges that researchers face in their construction: Instead, the authors suggest that consolidation is a process of stabilization, routinization, and institutionalization of patterns of political shedler.

Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with andrexs, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Please subscribe or login. The way demlcratic which to measure and define consolidation, therefore, is debated by scholars in the field.

In the long run, informal practices, such as clientelism, are indeed antithetical to democratic survival. He supports this conclusion with evidence of crisis management in Latin America.